Vastu shastra (vāstu śāstra) means science of architecture and construction. Found in Indian subcontinent, these survive as manuals on design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement, spatial geometry and other aspects of architecture. Vastu sastras incorporate traditional Hindu and in some cases Buddhist beliefs. The designs are based on integrating architecture with nature and ancient Indian beliefs utilizing perfect geometric patterns (yantra), symmetry and directional alignments.
 
Ancient Vastu Sastras discuss design of Mandir (temples), and include chapters on the principles, design and layout of houses, towns, cities, gardens, roads, water works, shops and other public necessities. While most Vastu shastras describe rules of construction and architecture, a few include chapters on astrology and rituals recommended for buildings.
 
They are also referred to as Vastu veda, Vastu vidya, Thachu shastra, Thatchu shasthra.
 
Terminology[edit]The Sanskrit word vastu means a dwelling or house with a corresponding plot of land. The vrddhi, vāstu, takes the meaning of "the site or foundation of a house, site, ground, building or dwelling-place, habitation, homestead, house". The underlying root is vas "to dwell, live, stay, reside". The term shastra may loosely be translated as "doctrine, teaching".
 
Vastu-Sastras (literally, science of dwelling) are ancient Sanskrit manuals of architecture. These contain Vastu-Vidya (literally, knowledge of dwelling).
 
Description
Ancient India produced many Sanskrit manuals of architecture, called Vastu Sastra. Many of these are about Hindu temple layout (above), design and construction, along with chapters on design principles for houses, villages, towns. The architect and artists (Silpins) were given wide latitude to experiment and express their creativity. Historians such as James Fergusson, Alexander Cunningham and Dr. Havell have suggested that Vastu Shastra developed between 6000 BCE and 3000 BCE, adding that the archaeological sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro stand on the principles of Vastu Shashtra. Excavation of number of Indus Valley sites provides the representation of Vastu Sastra. There exist many Vastu-Sastras on the art of building houses, temples, towns and cities. One such Vastu Sastra is by Thakkura Pheru, describing where and how temples should be built. By 6th century AD, Sanskrit manuals for constructing palatial temples were in circulation in India. Vastu-Sastra manuals included chapters on home construction, town planning, and how efficient villages, towns and kingdoms integrated temples, water bodies and gardens within them to achieve harmony with nature. While it is unclear, states Barnett, as to whether these temple and town planning texts were theoretical studies and if or when they were properly implemented in practice, the manuals suggest that town planning and Hindu temples were conceived as ideals of art and integral part of Hindu social and spiritual life.
 
The Silpa Prakasa of Odisha, authored by Ramacandra Bhattaraka Kaulacara sometime in ninth or tenth century CE, is another Vastu Sastra. Silpa Prakasa describes the geometric principles in every aspect of the temple and symbolism such as 16 emotions of human beings carved as 16 types of female figures. These styles were perfected in Hindu temples prevalent in eastern states of India. Other ancient texts found expand these architectural principles, suggesting that different parts of India developed, invented and added their own interpretations. For example, in Saurastra tradition of temple building found in western states of India, the feminine form, expressions and emotions are depicted in 32 types of Nataka-stri compared to 16 types described in Silpa Prakasa. Silpa Prakasa provides brief introduction to 12 types of Hindu temples. Other texts, such as Pancaratra Prasada Prasadhana compiled by Daniel Smith and Silpa Ratnakara compiled by Narmada Sankara provide a more extensive list of Hindu temple types.
 
Ancient Sanskrit manuals for temple construction discovered in Rajasthan, in northwestern region of India, include Sutradhara Mandana’s Prasadamandana (literally, manual for planning and building a temple) with chapters on town building. Manasara, a text of South Indian origin, estimated to be in circulation by 7th century AD, is a guidebook on South Indian Vastu design and construction. Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another Sanskrit text from the 9th century describing the art of building in India in south and central India. In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the widely cited ancient Sanskrit manual from 6th century describing the design and construction of Nagara style of Hindu temples.
 
These ancient Vastu Sastras, often discuss and describe the principles of Hindu temple design, but do not limit themselves to the design of a Hindu temple. They describe the temple as a holistic part of its community, and lay out various principles and a diversity of alternate designs for home, village and city layout along with the temple, gardens, water bodies and nature.
 
Fundamental concepts[edit] 
The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Vastu Purusha Mandala layout for Hindu Temples. It is one of 32 Vastu Purusha Mandala grid patterns described in Vastu sastras. In this grid structure of symmetry, each concentric layer has significance.[8]There are many principles in Vaastu Shastra. To mention a few which involve certain mathematical calculations, Maana is used for proportional relationships in a building and Aayaadi specifies conditions for maximum well being and benefits for the residents of a building.
 
In Indian architecture, the dwelling is itself a shrine. A home is called Manushyalaya, literally, "Human Temple". It is not merely a shelter for human beings in which to rest and eat. The concept behind house design is the same as for temple design, so sacred and spiritual are the two spaces.
 
—Hinduism Today
Vastu Purusha Mandala[edit]The Vastu Purusha Mandala is an indispensable part of vastu shastra and constitutes the mathematical design. It is the metaphysical plan of a building that incorporates the coursly bodies and supernatural forces. Purusha refers to energy, soul or Universal Principle. Mandala is the generic name for any plan or chart which symbolically represents the cosmos.
 
In Vastu-purusa-mandala, the areas (padas, squares) are associated with certain deities, such as:
 
North- Kubera- Ruled by lord of wealth (Finance) 
South- Yama- Ruled by lord of death – Yama (Damaging) 
East- Indra- Ruled by the solar deity- Aditya (Seeing the world) 
West- Varuna- Ruled by lord of water (Physical) 
Northeast {Eshanya} – Ruled by Shiva 
Southeast- Agni- Ruled by the fire deity – Agni (Energy Generating) 
Northwest- Vayu- ruled by the god of winds (Advertisement) 
Southwest- Pitru/Nairutya, Niruthi- Ruled by ancestors (History) 
Center- Brahma- Ruled by the creator of the universe (Desire) 
 
Mandala types and properties  
Pitha Mandala, a 3x3 (9) padas Vastu Purusa Mandala architecture 
Some representations of Vastu Purusha Mandala embed a person in manduka (frog mudra) pose inside the Vastu Purusha Mandala grid. 
A floor plan according to Vastu Sastra's symmetric gridThe central area in all mandala is the Brahmasthana. Mandala "circle-circumference" or "completion", is a concentric diagram having spiritual and ritual significance in both Buddhism and Hinduism. The space occupied by it varies in different mandala – in Pitha (9) and Upapitha (25) it occupies one square module, in Mahaapitha (16), Ugrapitha (36) and Manduka (64), four square modules and in Sthandila (49) and Paramasaayika (81), nine square modules. The Pitha is an amplified Prithvimandala in which, according to some texts, the central space is occupied by earth. The Sthandila mandala is used in a concentric manner.
 
The most important mandala is the Manduka/ Chandita Mandala of 64 squares and the Paramasaayika Mandala of 81 squares. The normal position of the Vastu Purusha (head in the northeast, legs in the southwest) is as depicted in the Paramasaayika Mandala. However, in the Manduka Mandala the Vastu Purusha is depicted with the head facing east and the feet facing west.
 
An important aspect of the mandala is that when divided into an odd number of squares, or ayugma, its center is constituted by one module or pada and when divided into an even number of squares or yugma, its center is constituted by a point formed by the intersection of the two perpendicular central lines. In spatial terms, the former is sakala or manifest/ morphic and the latter is nishkala or unmanifest/ amorphous.
 
Mandala in siting
The mandala is put to use in site planning and architecture through a process called the Pada Vinyasa. This is a method whereby any site can be divided into grids/ modules or pada. Depending on the position of the gods occupying the various modules, the zoning of the site and disposition of functions in a building are arrived at. Mandala have certain points known as marma which are vital energy spots on which nothing should be built. They are determined by certain proportional relationships of the squares and the diagonals.
 
A site of any shape can be divided using the Pada Vinyasa. Sites are known by the number of squares. They range from 1x1 to 32x32 (1024) square sites. Examples of mandalas with the corresponding names of sites include:
 
Sakala (1 square) corresponds to Eka-pada (single divided site) 
Pechaka (4 squares) corresponds to Dwi-pada (two divided site) 
Pitha (9 squares) corresponds to Tri-pada (three divided site) 
Mahaapitha (16 squares) corresponds to Chatush-pada (four divided site) 
Upapitha (25 squares) corresponds to Pancha-pada (five divided site) 
Ugrapitha (36 squares) corresponds to Shashtha-pada (six divided site) 
Sthandila (49 squares) corresponds to sapta-pada (seven divided site) 
Manduka/ Chandita (64 square) corresponds to Ashta-pada (eight divided site) 
Paramasaayika (81 squares) corresponds to Nava-pada (nine divided site) 
Aasana (100 squares) corresponds to Dasa-pada (ten divided site) 
Mandala in construction[edit]The concept of sakala and nishkala are applied in buildings appropriately. In temples, the concepts of sakala and nishkala are related to the two aspects of the Hindu idea of worship – Sagunopaasana, the supreme as personal God with attributes and Nirgunopaasana, the supreme as absolute spirit unconditioned by attributes. Correspondingly, the Sakala, complete in itself, is used for shrines of gods with form (sakalamoorthy) and to perform yajna (fire rites). However the Nishkala is used for installation of idols without form- nishkalamoorthy- and for auspicious, pure performances. The amorphous center is considered beneficial to the worshippers, being a source of great energy. This could also be used for settlements. In commercial buildings, only odd numbers of modules are prescribed as the nishkala or amorphous center would cause too high a concentration of energy for human occupants. Even here, the Brahmasthana is left unbuilt with rooms organised around.
 
Vastu Sastras - Sanskrit treatises on Architecture[edit]Of the numerous Sanskrit treatises mentioned in ancient Indian literature, some have been translated in English. Many Agamas, Puranas and Hindu scriptures include chapters on architecture of temples, homes, villages, towns, fortifications, streets, shop layout, public wells, public bathing, public halls, gardens, river fronts among other things. In some cases, the manuscripts are partially lost, some are available only in Tibetan, Nepalese or South Indian languages, while in others original Sanskrit manuscripts are available in different parts of India. Some treatises, or books with chapters on Vaastu Shastra include:
 
Manasara 
Brhat samhita 
Mayamata 
Anka sastra 
Aparajita Vastu Sastra 
Maha-agamas (28 books, each with 12 to 75 chapters) 
Ayadi Lakshana 
Aramadi Pratishtha Paddhati (includes garden design) 
Kasyapiya 
Kupadi Jala Sthana Lakshana 
Kshetra Nirmana Vidhi (preparation of land and foundation of buildings including temples) 
Gargya samhita (pillars, doors, windows, wall design and architecture) 
Griha Pithika (types of houses and their construction) 
Ghattotsarga Suchanika (riverfront and steps architecture) 
Chakra sastra 
Jnana ratna kosha 
Vastu sarani (measurement, ratio and design layouts of objects, particularly buildings) 
Devalaya Lakshana (treatise on construction of temples) 
Dhruvadi shodasa gehani (guidelines for arrangement of buildings with respect to each other for harmony) 
Nava sastra (36 books, most lost) 
Agni Purana (Chapters 42 through 55, and 106 - Nagaradi Vastu) 
Matsya Purana (Chapters 252 through 270) 
Maya samgraha 
Prasada kirtana 
Prasada Lakshana 
Tachchu sastra (primarily home design for families) 
Manushyalaya Lakshana (primarily human dwelings) 
Mantra dipika 
Mana kathana (measurement principles) 
Manava vastu lakshana 
Manasollasa (chapters on house layout, mostly ancient cooking recipes) 
Raja griha nirmana (architecture and construction principles for royal palaces) 
Rupa mandana 
Vastu chakra 
Vastu tattva 
Vastu nirnaya 
Vastu purusha lakshana 
Vastu prakasa 
Vastu pradipa 
Vastu manjari 
Vastu mandana 
Vastu lakshana 
Vastu vichara 
Vastu vidya 
Vastu vidhi 
Vastu samgraha 
Vastu sarvasva 
Vimana lakshana (tower design) 
Visvakarma prakasa (home, roads, water tanks and public works architecture) 
Vaikhanasa 
Sastra jaladhi ratna 
Sipla prakasa 
Silpakala Dipika 
Silpartha sastra 
Sanatkumara vastu sastra 
 
Jyotisha (or Jyotish from Sanskrit jyotisha, from jyótis- "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of astrology. It is also known as Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and more recently Vedic astrology. The term Hindu astrology has been in use as the English equivalent of Jyotisha since the early 19th century, whereasVedic astrology is a relatively recent term, entering common usage in the 1980s with self-help publications on Āyurveda or Yoga. Vedanga Jyotisha is one of the earliest texts about astronomy within the Vedas. However, historical documentation shows that horoscopic astrology in the Indian subcontinent came from Hellenistic influences, post-dating the Vedic period.
 
Jyotisha has been divided into three main branches:
 
Siddhānta: Indian astronomy. 
Sahitā: Mundane astrology, predicting important events related to countries such as war, earthquakes, political events, financial positions, electional astrology, house and construction related matters (Vāstu Śāstra), animals, portents, omens, and so on. 
Horā: Predictive astrology in detail. 
 
History
Indian astronomy and Hindu chronology
Jyotisha is one of the Vedānga, the six auxiliary disciplines used to support Vedic rituals. Early jyotisha is concerned with the preparation of a calendar to fix the date of sacrificial rituals. Nothing is written on planets. There are mentions of eclipse causing "demons" in the Atharvaveda and Chāndogya Upanishad, the Chāndogya mentioning Rāhu. In fact the term graha, which is now taken to mean planet, originally meant demon. The veda also mentions an eclipse causing demon, Svarbhānu, however the specific term of "graha" becomes applied to Svarbhānu in the later Mahābhārata and Rāmāyana.
 
The foundation of Hindu astrology is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas, (scriptures), which is the connection between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Practice relies primarily on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from the tropical zodiac used in Western (Hellenistic) astrology in that an ayanāṁśa adjustment is made for the gradual precession of the vernal equinox. Hindu astrology includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (Nakshatra). It was only after the transmission of Hellenistic astrology that the order of planets in India was fixed in that of the seven-day week. Hellenistic astrology and astronomy also transmitted the twelve zodiacal signs beginning with Aries and the twelve astrological places beginning with the ascendant. The first evidence of the introduction of Greek astrology to India is the Yavanajātaka which dates to the early centuries CE. The Yavanajātaka ("Sayings of the Greeks") was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by Yavaneśvara during the 2nd century CE, under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I, and is considered the first Indian astrological treatise in the Sanskrit language. However the only version that survives is the later verse version of Sphujidhvaja which dates to AD 270. The first Indian astronomical text to define the weekday was of Āryabhata (born AD 476).
 
According to Michio Yano, Indian astronomers must have been occupied with the task of Indianizing and Sanskritizing Greek astronomy during the 300 or so years between the first Yavanajataka and the Āryabhatīya. The astronomical texts of these 300 years are lost. The later Pañcasiddhāntikā of Varāhamihira summarizes the five known Indian astronomical schools of the sixth century. It is interesting to note that Indian astronomy preserved some of the older pre-Ptolemaic elements of Greek astronomy.
 
The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Brihat Parāśara Horāśāstra, and Sārāvalī by Kalyānavarma. The Horāshastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of which the first part (chapters 1–51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52–71) to the later 8th century. The Sārāvalī likewise dates to around 800 CE.[9] English translations of these texts were published by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively.
 
Modern Hindu astrology
David Pingree notes that astrology and traditional medicine are the two traditional sciences that have survived best in modern India, although both have been much transformed by their western counterparts.
 
Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally named based on their jyotiṣa charts, and astrological concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business, and moving into a new home. Astrology retains a position among the sciences in modern India. 
Astrology remains an important facet of Hindu folk belief in contemporary India. Many Hindus believe that heavenly bodies, including the planets, have an influence throughout the life of a human being, and these planetary influences are the "fruit of karma." The Navagraha, planetary deities, are considered subordinate to Ishvara, i.e., the Supreme Being, in the administration of justice. Thus, these planets can influence earthly life.
 
Status of astrology: Astrology and science and Hindu astrology § Science
In the early 2000s, under the Bharatiya Janata Party led government in India, astrology became a topic of political contention between the religious right and academic establishment, comparable to the "Creation science" debate in US education.
 
The University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government decided to introduce "Jyotir Vigyan" (i.e. jyotir vijñāna) or "Vedic astrology" as a discipline of study in Indian universities, saying that "vedic astrology is not only one of the main subjects of our traditional and classical knowledge but this is the discipline, which lets us know the events happening in human life and in universe on time scale." The decision was backed up by the Andhra Pradesh High Court, despite widespread protests from the scientific community in India and Indian scientists working abroad. A petition sent to the Supreme Court of India stated that the introduction of astrology to university curricula is "a giant leap backwards, undermining whatever scientific credibility the country has achieved so far", but it refused to intervene in the matter.
 
In 2004 the Supreme Court dismissed a further petition, concluding that the teaching of astrology did not qualify as the promotion of religion. In February 2011, the Bombay High Court referred to the 2004 Supreme Court ruling when it dismissed a case which had challenged astrology's status as a science. Despite continuing complaints by scientists, astrology is still, as of 2014, taught at various universities in India,and there is a movement in progress to establish a national Vedic University to teach astrology together with the study of tantra, mantra, and yoga.
 
Elements There are sixteen Varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'), or divisional, charts used in Hindu astrology:
 
Rāśi – zodiacal signs[edit]Around 2500 BC many extant texts were written by sages such Agastya and Bhrigu. Each sign was divided in three more strata called "charna" similar to decanates of Western astrology.
 
The Nirayana, or sidereal zodiac, is an imaginary belt of 360 degrees, which, like the Sāyana, or tropical zodiac, is divided into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rāśi (Sanskrit: 'part'). Vedic (Jyotisha) and Western zodiacs differ in the method of measurement. While synchronically, the two systems are identical, Jyotisha uses primarily the sidereal zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets is measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against the position of the Sun on the Spring equinox). This difference becomes noticeable over time. After two millennia, as a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a result the placement of planets in the Jyotisha system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology the planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the time.
 
Number Sanskrit International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration Sanskrit gloss English name Greek Gloss Tattva (Element) Quality Ruling Planet 
1  Mesha ram Aries ram Tejas (Fire) Cara (Movable) Mars 
2  Vrishabha bull Taurus bull Prithivi (Earth) Sthira (Fixed) Venus 
3  Mithuna twins Gemini twins Vayu (Air) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury 
4  Kark crab Cancer crab Jala (Water) Cara (Movable) Moon 
5  Sinha lion Leo lion Tejas (Fire) Sthira (Fixed) Sun 
6  Kanyā girl Virgo virgin Prithivi (Earth) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury 
7  Tulā balance Libra balance Vayu (Air) Cara (Movable) Venus 
8  Vriśchika scorpion Scorpio scorpion Jala (Water) Sthira (Fixed) Mars 
9  Dhanu bow Sagittarius archer Tejas (Fire) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter 
10  Makara sea-monster Capricorn goat-horned Prithivi (Earth) Cara (Movable) Saturn 
11  Kumbha pitcher Aquarius water-pourer Vayu (Air) Sthira (Fixed) Saturn 
12  Mīna fish Pisces fishes Jala (Water) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter 
 
Nakshatras - lunar mansions
NakshatrasA Nakshatra or lunar mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, used in Hindu astrology.
 
Historical (medieval) Hindu astrology enumerated either 27 or 28 nakshatras. Today, popular usage favours a rigid system of 27 nakshatras covering 13°20’ of the ecliptic each. The missing 28th nakshatra is Abhijeeta. Each nakshatra is divided into quarters or padas of 3°20. Of the greatest importance is the Abhiśeka Nakshatra which is the King amongst all the Nakshatras and worshipping and propitiating this Nakshatra has the power to remedy all the other Nakshatras. Remedial measures are in general the high-water mark of all realistic predictive astrology work and go a long way in mitigating Karma.
 
Daśā-s – planetary periods 
The word Dasha (Sanskrit,daśā, 'planetary period') means 'state of being' and therefore the Daśā governs to a large extent the state of being of a person. The Daśā system shows which planets may be said to have become particularly active during the period of the Daśā. The ruling planet (the Daśānātha or 'lord of the Daśā') eclipses the mind of the native, compelling him or her to act as per the nature of the planet.
 
There are several dasha systems, each with its own utility and area of application. There are Daśās of Grahas (planets) as well as Daśās of the Rāśis (signs). The primary system used by astrologers is the Vimśottarī Daśā system, which has been considered universally applicable in the Kaliyuga to all horoscopes.
 
The first Mahā-Daśā is determined by the position of the natal Moon in a given Nakshatra. The lord of the Nakshatra governs the Daśā. Each Mahā-Dāśā is divided into sub-periods called bhuktis, or antar-daśās, which are proportional divisions of the maha-dasa. Further proportional sub-divisions can be made (but error margin based on accuracy of the birth-time grows exponentially). The next sub-division is called pratyantar-daśā, which can in turn be divided into sookshma-antardasa, which can in turn be divided into praana-antardaśā, which can be sub-divided into deha-antardaśā. Such sub-divisions also exist in all other Daśā systems, some of which have been named above.
 
Grahas – planets 
Nine grahas (Navagrahas) are used. from Grah (Sanskrit: graha, 'seizing, laying hold of, holding')
 
The Nine Planets of Vedic Astrology or Jyotisha are the forces that capture or eclipse the mind and the decision making of the human being-thus the term 'Graha'. When the Grahas are active in their Daśās or periodicities they are particularly empowered to direct the affairs of the person or the inanimate being as the case may be. Even otherwise, Grahas are always busy capturing us in some way or other, for better or for worse.
 
Gocharas – transits
The natal chart shows the position of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit').
he study of transits is based not only on the transit of the Moon/ Cañdra, which spans roughly two days, but also the movement of the slightly faster planets such as Mercury/Budha and Venus/ Śukra. The movement of the slower planets Guru, Śani and Rāhu-Ketu is always of considerable import. Astrologers must study the transit of the Daśā lord and must also study transits from various reference points in the horoscope.
 
Yogas – planetary combinations
 
Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union') is a combination of planets placed in a specific relationship to each other.
 
It is usually advisable to study the underlying theme behind the Yogas rather than attempting to memorize them. Rāja Yogas are givers of fame, status and authority and are formed typically by the association of lord of Kendras/ quadrants when reckoned from the Lagna/ ascendant and lords of the Trikona/ trines. The Rāja Yogas are culminations of the blessings of God Vishnu and Godess Lakshmī. Some planets such as Mars for Leo Lagna do not need another Graha so as to create Rājayoga but is capable of suo-moto giving Rājayoga due to its lordship of the 4th Bhāva and the 9th Bhāva from the Lagna, the two being a Kendra and Trikna Bhāva respectively.
 
Dhana Yogas are formed due to the association of wealth giving planets such as the Dhaneśa or the 2nd Lord and the Lābheśa or the 11th Lord from the Lagna. Dhana Yogas are also formed due to the auspicious placement of the Dārāpada/ A7 when reckoned from the Ārūdha Lagna (AL). The combination of the Lagneśa and the Bhāgyeśa also leads to wealth through the Lakshmī Yoga.
 
Sanyāsa Yogas are formed due to the placement of four or more Grahas excluding the Sun in a Kendra Bhāva from the Lagna.
 
There are some overarching Yogas in Jyotisha such as Kāla Sarpa Yoga, Kāla Amrita Yoga and Graha Mālika Yoga which can take precedence over planetary placements in the horoscope.
 
Bhāvas – houses
The Hindu Jātaka, or Birth Chart, is the Bhāva (Sanskrit: 'division') Cakra (Sanskrit: 'wheel'), the complete 360° circle of life, divided into houses, and represents our way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated kāraka (Sanskrit: 'significator') planets that can alter the interpretation of a particular house. Each Bhāva spans an arc of 30 degrees and therefore there are twelve Bhāvas in any chart of the horoscope. These are a crucial part of any horoscopic study since the Bhāvas, understood as 'state of being' personalize the Rāśis/ Rashis to the native and each Rāśi/ Rashi apart from indicating its true nature reveals its impact on the person based on the Bhāva occupied. The best way to study the various facets of Jyotisha is to see their role in chart evaluation of actual persons and how these are construed.
 
Drishti – aspects
Drishti ('sight') is an aspect to an entire house. Grahas cast only forward aspects, with the furthest aspect being considered the strongest. For example, Mars aspects the 4th, 7th, and 8th houses from its position, and its 8th house aspect is considered more powerful than its 7th aspect, which is in turn more powerful than its 4th aspect.
 
The principle of Dristi (aspect) was devised on the basis of the aspect of an army of planets as deity and demon in a war field. Thus the Sun, a Deity King with only one full aspect, is more powerful then the Demon King Saturn, which has three full aspects.
 
Aspects can be cast both by the planets (Graha Drishti) and by the signs (Rāśi). Planetary aspects are a function of desire, while sign aspects are a function of awareness and cognizance.
 
There are some higher aspects of Graha Drishti (planetary aspects) that are not limited to the Viśesha Drishti or the special aspects. Rāśi Drishti works based on the following formulaic structure: all movable signs aspect fixed signs except the one adjacent, and all dual and mutable signs aspect each other without exception.
 

 

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